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保温砂浆及其他材料的开裂及应对措施

时间:2016-07-18     作者:www.hdbwsj.com【原创】   阅读

目前国内建筑墙体保温多选内保温作法,因为内保温比外保作法简单风险小,但保温层面层裂缝成为一大难题.本文叙述内保温墙体面层裂缝的原因和对策。

At present domestic building wall insulation alternative insulation, because after the outside heat preservation than simple practice risk is small, but the thermal insulation layer surface cracks become a big problem. This paper insulation wall body and the causes of cracks on the surface.


一、保温板材变形

A, heat preservation plate deformation


引起裂缝的原因与对策

The causes of cracks and countermeasures


不少施工单位为减少湿作业.选用贴预制保温板作法。预制保温板材在工厂成型,现场只需粘贴即可,方便了施工作业。但这种贴板法在施工二三个月至一年后,多数面层都出现了不同程度的开裂,板接缝处尤为明显。其原因是外墙结构暴露在大气中受温差变化影响结构整体外形尺寸也发生变化,而附在外墙上的每一块保温板材都单独地收缩和膨胀。墙体变形量大,保温板变形量小,由此产生墙体与保温板材体型变化的应力方向和大小不同,各部分的这种变化随温度升降而轮回出现。内保温板材附着在一个不稳定的基础上,常规情况下,板块裂缝出现只是一个时间早晚的问题。对这种裂缝的对策是板缝应考虑采用弹性软联接材料。

Many construction units to reduce wet homework. Choose paste prefabricated insulation board. At the factory prefabrication insulating plate forming, the scene just paste can, convenient for construction. But this kind of strap method in the construction of two or three months to a year later, most of the surface appeared different degree of cracking, particularly plate juncture place. The reason for this is that external wall structure is exposed to the atmosphere is affected by the temperature changing structure overall dimension change, and attached to the outer wall of each heat preservation plates separately contraction and expansion. Wall deformation is large, insulation plate deformation is small, the resulting stress of the wall with insulation plate shape change direction and the size is different, each part of this change with the temperature lift and rebirth. Insulation sheet attached in an unstable, on the basis of conventional cases, plate cracking is just a a matter of time. Countermeasures for this kind of crack is flexible connecting joints should consider adopting flexible material.


二、保温材料受潮变软

Second, the heat preservation material softening of be affected with damp be affected with damp


引起裂缝的原因和对策

The causes of cracks and countermeasures


为避免板缝开裂很多人选择了浆料型现场抹灰的保温作法.以求得到整块的保温层。这种保温层虽取得了整体性好、没有裂缝的效果.但抹灰浆料无法象板材那样设置空气层。不能有效地控制墙体结露,保温层处于潮湿状态。室内外温差造成墙体结露现象是经常发生的。若室温为20℃.相对湿度为70%的条件下,露点为14℃,也就是墙体温度低于14℃时墙面就会出现结露。在保温结构中,保温层置于内侧.墙体温度常低于14℃。即在保温层与墙体结构层界面处产生结露。若保温材料没有良好的抗蒸汽渗透性.保温层吸水会使导热系数进一步变大,加剧结露现象。目前建筑保温材料中有很大的一部份浆体保温材料遇水软化,丧失强度。

To avoid plate slit a lot of people choose the scene of the slurry type plaster insulation. In order to get the whole piece of thermal insulation layer. The thermal insulation layer is integral sex is good, no crack results have been achieved. But the plaster slurry can't set the air layer like sheet. Can not effectively control the wall condensation, insulation layer in the wet state. Caused by temperature difference between indoor and outdoor wall dewing phenomenon is frequent. If the room temperature is 20 ℃, relative humidity of 70%, under the condition of dew point of 14 ℃, that is the wall temperature below 14 ℃ metope can appear condensation. In thermal insulation structure, thermal insulation layer on the inside. The wall temperature is often lower than 14 ℃. In the thermal insulation layer and dewing wall structure layer interface. If the heat preservation material without good vapor permeability resistance. Thermal insulation layer suction can make further larger thermal conductivity, increasing condensation phenomenon. At present a significant part of the building thermal insulation material slurry heat preservation material in water softening, loss of strength.


这种现象最终会导致面层开裂。一般情况下在结构墙体上应避免采用经水提泡48h,粘接强度丧失50%以上的材料,即软化系数低于0.5的保温浆料。荥阳市永大机械设备厂设备的研究、设计,拥有一流的设计师和制作团队,不断创新的永大人,设计的高效全自动保温砂浆生产线设备受到国内外客户的一直赞誉。

This kind of phenomenon will ultimately lead to surface cracking. Generally on the structure of wall body should avoid using the water bubble 48 h, bonding strength loss of more than 50% of the material, the heat preservation material softening coefficient less than 0.5. Xingyang wing tai machinery equipment factory equipment research, design, have a first-class designers and production team, continuous innovation of adult, design of efficient automatic production line of insulation mortar equipment has been praised by customers at home and abroad.


三、玻纤网布耐碱强度保持率低

Three, low alkali glass fiber mesh cloth strength retention


引起裂缝的原因和对策

The causes of cracks and countermeasures


常见的玻纤网布有三种不同材质,即无碱网布、中碱网布和耐碱网布。实验证明,它们在碱性条件下抗拉强度都有所下降。无碱网布抗拉强度高,但耐碱性能最差。其次是中碱网布,其耐碱性能亦差,在水泥砂浆中一个月左右玻璃纤维就会粉化,轻拉即断开。抗碱性能最好要属含氧化锆的耐碱玻纤网布,氧化锆在玻璃纤维中含量在14%~16%时,其耐碱强度保持率在60%~80%左右。另外、玻纤网布表面涂覆材料的不同选择,也会对网布的抗拉强度及耐碱强度保持率发生重要影响。

Common there are three kinds of different materials, glass fiber mesh cloth namely non-alkali cloth, in base mesh cloth and alkali mesh cloth. Experiments have proved that they all under the condition of alkaline tensile strength decreased. Non-alkali fabric tensile strength is high, but worst alkalis. Alkali followed by alkali mesh cloth, its performance is also poor, a month or so of glass fiber in cement mortar will pulverization, gently pull the disconnect. Alkali resistance can best to alkali glass fiber mesh cloth containing zirconium oxide, zirconium oxide in the glass fiber content in 14% ~ 16%, the alkali resistant strength retention rate at about 60% ~ 80%. In addition, the different choices of different glass fiber mesh cloth surface coating material, also on the tensile strength and alkali resistance strength of fabric is retention has important influence.


3.聚合物砂浆强度的选择

3. The choice of polymer mortar strength


目前常与玻纤网布配套使用的聚合物砂浆、其配比为425号水泥:细砂=1:2加调适量聚合物乳液。这种聚合物砂浆粘接强度很高,表面硬度也很高,其强度在1.1~2.0mpa。水泥砂浆强度过高和使用细砂,都会促使基层开裂。因而应选用具有可变形的特点的弹性乳液:425号水泥:中砂=1:1:3制作的弹性砂浆,能在很大程度上控制墙面裂缝。

Is often associated with the glass fiber mesh cloth used polymer mortar, the ratio for 425 # cement: fine = 1:2 to add a moderate amount of polymer emulsion. The polymer mortar high bonding strength, surface hardness is high, its strength is 1.1 ~ 2.0 mpa. High strength of cement mortar and the use of fine sand, will encourage grassroots craze. So should choose has the characteristics of the deformable elastic emulsion: 425 # cement: medium sand = 1:1:3 elasticity of mortar, can control wall cracks in the very great degree.


4.网布构造位置的选择

4. Net cloth tectonic location choice


玻纤网布在水泥砂浆中起软钢筋的作用、网布能否正确发挥作用,其配筋位置十分关键。目前常发生裂缝的保温板,其网布铺贴位置是靠在保温层上面,而在网布外面有1~3cm厚的水泥聚合物砂浆层。这种作法在水泥砂浆强度增长后会导致面层开裂。合理的作法是在保温层上先用弹性水泥砂浆抹3~5mm厚,然后将网格布用铁抹子及时压入沙浆之中。

Fiberglass mesh cloth in cement mortar plays the role of soft steel, mesh cloth can work correctly, its reinforcement position is very critical. The cracks often occur insulation board, its net cloth shop is stuck position in thermal insulation layer, and on the outside of the fabric is there is 1 ~ 3 cm thick layer of polymer cement mortar. This practice can cause surface cracking after cement mortar strength increasing. Is reasonable on the thermal insulation layer with elastic with cement mortar first 3 ~ 5 mm thick, and then to press the mesh cloth use iron float shall timely into mortar.


四、舒乐舍板配筋

Four, shule plate reinforcement


造成裂缝的原因和对策

Causes of the cracks and countermeasures


目前在墙体保温上用聚苯板上插镀锌钢丝网的作法也不少。其作法通常是将保温板直接放在砼大模板内侧,浇注硷时将保温板固定在外墙表面,用1:1:6的(水泥:灰膏:砂)砂浆抹2—3cm,将镀锌丝网面及钢丝网表面接缝抹平。

At present on the wall thermal insulation with eps board plug did a lot of galvanized steel wire net. Its practice is usually put insulation board directly in concrete big inside of the template, pouring alkali to fix insulation board on the wall surface, with 1:1:6 (cement, plaster, sand) mortar plastering 2 -- 3 cm, the surface of galvanized wire mesh and wire mesh with seam.


钢丝网表面抹灰作法常规看来是人们较为放心的保温层构造设计。经工程跟踪观察,这种聚苯板上插钢丝网的保温作法,也多发生裂缝,裂缝的形状多为斜裂缝和直裂缝,裂缝通常发生在面层砂浆抹灰完成一个月左右的时间里。

Wire mesh surface rendering practice routine seems to be more people trust of insulation structure design. Tracking the project, the polystyrene insulation plug wire mesh on practice, also many cracks occur, the shape of diagonal crack, and straight cracks, cracks usually occur during surface mortar plaster finish a month or so.


这种裂缝产生的原因经分析有以下几点。

The cause of the cracks in the analysis has the following points.


1.钢丝网原构造位置改变,在现浇砼剪力墙时,带钢丝网的聚苯保温板在外模板的内侧,由于浇注砼对模板产生侧压力,上下不同部位的侧压力差值很大,造成聚苯板变形钢丝网位移。下部的聚苯板面已被挤到了钢丝网的外面,而上部受侧压较小,聚苯板还距钢丝网0.5~lcm。

Wire mesh structure's former location change, in cast-in-situ concrete shear wall, steel mesh polystyrene insulation board outside the inside of the template, due to the lateral pressure, pouring concrete to the template and different parts of the lateral pressure difference is very big, cause of polystyrene deformation displacement of wire mesh. Lower part of the eps panel has been pushed into the outside of the wire mesh, and the upper lateral pressure is small, polystyrene also from wire mesh 0.5 ~ LCM.


这种硷震捣后导致的钢丝网的相对位移,会造成水泥砂层中钢筋的位置每层都有不同的变化,水泥砂浆无配筋的厚度在1~50mm范围内无规则的变化。这使得它们在水泥经砂浆热胀冷缩或正负风压受力时所起的作用正好相反。

The alkali after vibrating causes the relative displacement of the steel mesh can cause cement sand layer position of the reinforcement of different changes of each layer, the thickness of the cement mortar without reinforcement within 1 ~ 50 mm with no rules changes. This makes them in cement mortar heat bilges cold shrink or positive and negative wind pressure stress the role of just the opposite.


2.舒乐舍板插钢丝网的网眼为50mm×50mm,对角线尺寸为72mm。对角线方向水泥砂浆抹灰层无配筋,网眼孔过大,是导致面层砂浆斜裂缝的另一重要原因。

2. The shule shed board plug wire mesh x 50 mm to 50 mm, diagonal dimension is 72 mm. Diagonal direction without reinforcement, cement mortar plastering layer mesh hole is too big, is another important cause of the diagonal crack surface mortar.


3.联接网片漏放,导致直裂缝。在舒乐板拼装时,施工中稍不谨慎就有可能漏绑丝网之间的联接片,钢丝网断开处,必然产生直裂缝。据此,舒乐板配置钢丝网抹灰完成后,应在面层增加抗裂弹性水泥浆压入耐碱玻纤网布,做为面层的抗裂层。

3. Join mesh leakage, lead to crack. During the construction of shule plate assembly, a bit not careful it may leak to screen between the connecting piece, steel mesh disconnect, inevitably produce straight crack. Accordingly, shule plate configuration wire mesh rendering is finished, where should be the surface to increase flexibility anti-crack slurry pumped alkali glass fiber mesh cloth, as the surface of the crack layer.


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